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Other names for thrall were ‘træl’ and ‘ty’. The assimilation of the nascent Scandinavian kingdoms into the cultural mainstream of European Christendom altered the aspirations of Scandinavian rulers and of Scandinavians able to travel abroad, and adjusted their relations with their neighbours. One of the first sources of profit for the Vikings had been slave-taking. The medieval Church held that Christians should not personal fellow Christians as slaves, so chattel slavery diminished as a follow all through northern Europe.

Facilitated by advanced crusing and navigational expertise, and characterised by the longship, Viking actions at occasions also extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, and the Middle East. Following extended phases of (primarily sea- or river-borne) exploration, enlargement and settlement, Viking (Norse) communities and governments had been established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus,[9] Ukraine[10] and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and so far as the north-jap coast of North America.

While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has elevated. The largest such teams embrace The Vikings and Regia Anglorum, although many smaller groups exist in Europe, North America, New Zealand, and Australia. Many reenactor groups take part in stay-metal combat, and a few have Viking-type ships or boats. Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have proven a persistent affect in late 20th- and early 21st-century well-liked tradition in some international locations, inspiring comics, films, television collection, role-taking part in video games, laptop games, and music, together with Viking steel, a subgenre of heavy steel music. Runestones attest to voyages to areas such as Bath,[104] Greece,[one hundred and five] Khwaresm,[106] Jerusalem,[107] Italy (as Langobardland),[108] Serkland (i.e. the Muslim world),[109] England[110] (together with London[111]), and numerous locations in Eastern Europe.

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Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. However, the Swedes started to resent the monopoly trading position of the Hansa (principally German residents) and to resent the revenue they felt they lost to the Hansa.

In the Viking colony of Iceland, a rare vernacular literature blossomed within the 12th by way of 14th centuries, and lots of traditions connected with the Viking Age were written down for the primary time in the Icelandic sagas. Christianity had taken root in Denmark and Norway with the establishment of dioceses during the eleventh century, and the brand new religion was beginning to organise and assert itself extra effectively in Sweden. Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic in furthering the pursuits of Christianity, which was now now not working only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were reworking. By 1103, the primary archbishopric was founded in Scandinavia, at Lund, Scania, then a part of Denmark.


In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the usage of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner. The cultural phenomenon of Viking growth was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to help the acute militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically knowledgeable interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed within the development of Nazi mysticism. Other political organisations of the same ilk, corresponding to the previous norweigan girl Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling, equally appropriated elements of the fashionable Viking cultural fantasy of their symbolism and propaganda. A consequence of the available written sources, which may have coloured how the Viking age is perceived as a historical interval, is that much more is known of the Vikings’ actions in western Europe than in the East. One purpose is that the cultures of north-eastern Europe on the time have been non-literate, and didn’t produce a legacy of literature.

The pipelines from Norway are organized via Gassled. In the North Sea, Equinor operates the Oseberg Transport System, Kvitebjørn oil pipeline, Heidrun gasoline pipeline, Sleipner East pipeline and Vestprosess pipeline.

It is spoken by Romanisæl (Tater) Travellers. Because of the wandering nature of the Romani people, there is no geographic stronghold of the Romani language in Norway.

Norway–European Union relations

Slaves comprised as much as 1 / 4 of the population.[129] Slavery was of important significance to Viking society, for on a regular basis chores and huge scale development and also to commerce and the financial system. Thralls had been servants and staff in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, they usually were used for developing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and related exhausting work projects.

(2001) How do we all know concerning the Vikings? Archived sixteen August 2006 at the Wayback Machine BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 14 November 2007. Return of Dublin’s Viking Warship Archived 18 October 2008 on the Wayback Machine. Peter Sawyer, The Viking Expansion, The Cambridge History of Scandinavia, Issue 1 Archived 22 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Knut Helle, ed., 2003), p. one hundred and five. Viking is an Old Norse time period, of disputed derivation, which only came into frequent usage within the nineteenth cent.

In the first many years of the twenty first century, an rising variety of immigrants from Africa and the Middle East began to rework Norway’s largely homogeneous inhabitants into a extra ethnically numerous one. Most details about Scandinavian mythology is contained within the outdated Norse literature including Norwegian literature, the Eddas and later sagas. Other information comes from the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus with fragments of legends preserved in old inscriptions.

) a North Germanic language, spoken by approximately 10 million folks,[87] predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, particularly alongside its coast and on the Åland islands. It is, to a substantial extent, mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to a lesser extent with Danish (see particularly « Classification »). Along with the opposite North Germanic languages, Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the frequent language of the Germanic peoples residing in Scandinavia through the Viking Era. It is the biggest of the North Germanic languages by numbers of speakers. Sweden stays non-aligned militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and another nations, in addition to intensive cooperation with different European countries within the area of defence technology and defence business.


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The largest area inhabited by Swedes, in addition to the earliest recognized original space inhabited by their linguistic ancestors, is in the country of Sweden, located on the jap facet of the Scandinavian Peninsula and the islands adjacent to it, located west of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. The Swedish-talking individuals residing in near-coastal areas on the north-japanese and jap side of the Baltic Sea also have a protracted historical past of continuous settlement, which in some of these areas probably began about a millennium in the past[quotation needed].

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Sweden’s role in the Battle of Leipzig gave it the authority to drive Denmark-Norway, an ally of France, to cede Norway to the King of Sweden on 14 January 1814 in exchange for northern German provinces, at the Treaty of Kiel. The Norwegian attempts to keep their status as a sovereign state were rejected by the Swedish king, Charles XIII. He launched a army campaign towards Norway on 27 July 1814, ending in the Convention of Moss, which pressured Norway into a private union with Sweden under the Swedish crown, which lasted until 1905. The 1814 campaign was the final war by which Sweden participated as a combatant.

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